A schoolmate carries Adamu Yusif who is unable to walk due to polio to the classroom on the second floor of their primary school in Kano. Buildings and sidewalks in Kano are mostly not adjusted for the physically handicapped.

A schoolmate carries Adamu Yusif who is unable to walk due to polio to the classroom on the second floor of their primary school in Kano. Buildings and sidewalks in Kano are mostly not adjusted for the physically handicapped.

 Members of Kano Polio Victims Trust Association (KPVTA) praying at their headquarters in Kano. Polio is a highly infectious disease that is caused by a virus and spreads by ingesting contaminated food or sewage-infected water. In most cases polio paralyses one or both legs of the victim which also prevents the normal development of muscles.

Members of Kano Polio Victims Trust Association (KPVTA) praying at their headquarters in Kano. Polio is a highly infectious disease that is caused by a virus and spreads by ingesting contaminated food or sewage-infected water. In most cases polio paralyses one or both legs of the victim which also prevents the normal development of muscles.

 Member of KPVTA exits organization's car at the KPVTA headquarters where members meet regularly. Polio victims mostly can't walk and depending on how their limbs were affected by the disease they use different ways to move. Often they use knees and protect their hands with flip-flops.

Member of KPVTA exits organization's car at the KPVTA headquarters where members meet regularly. Polio victims mostly can't walk and depending on how their limbs were affected by the disease they use different ways to move. Often they use knees and protect their hands with flip-flops.

 Water from a water-well which is located less than a hundred yards from the nearby open dump site runs into a bucket. Well-water like this is found in many neighborhoods of Kano and is used by residents for washing dishes, clothes and bathing.

Water from a water-well which is located less than a hundred yards from the nearby open dump site runs into a bucket. Well-water like this is found in many neighborhoods of Kano and is used by residents for washing dishes, clothes and bathing.

 Aminu Ahmed Tudun-Wada, chairman of KPVTA, with two of his children at his home in Kano. Umar (R) is his only child affected by polio. Umar was born in 2003 when immunization was boycotted in the State of Kano and its surroundings; he contracted polio few months after his birth.  

Aminu Ahmed Tudun-Wada, chairman of KPVTA, with two of his children at his home in Kano. Umar (R) is his only child affected by polio. Umar was born in 2003 when immunization was boycotted in the State of Kano and its surroundings; he contracted polio few months after his birth.  

 Members of KPVTA practicing para-soccer. They can reach high speed by sitting on small wooden skateboards and pushing themselves by hands protected by flip-flops.

Members of KPVTA practicing para-soccer. They can reach high speed by sitting on small wooden skateboards and pushing themselves by hands protected by flip-flops.

 Sani Abdullahi welds together parts of bicycles. He works in the welding workshop where he transforms bicycles into hand-operated tricycles for use by polio victims.

Sani Abdullahi welds together parts of bicycles. He works in the welding workshop where he transforms bicycles into hand-operated tricycles for use by polio victims.

 A motorbike drives by the tricycles that are for sale at the KPVTA headquarters. Because the polio victims can't use their legs to pedal, tricycles are constructed in a way that they can be operated by hands.

A motorbike drives by the tricycles that are for sale at the KPVTA headquarters. Because the polio victims can't use their legs to pedal, tricycles are constructed in a way that they can be operated by hands.

 Polio victims Naja Atu Yusif (L) and Adamu Yusif (R), in the courtyard of their primary school in Kano. While Naja can limp, Adamu can't walk and has to use a tricycle to move around.

Polio victims Naja Atu Yusif (L) and Adamu Yusif (R), in the courtyard of their primary school in Kano. While Naja can limp, Adamu can't walk and has to use a tricycle to move around.

 Hand-drawn map of houses and streets in the catchment area of one of Tarauni local government's polio vaccination teams, and the list of important locations the team would cover in this part of Kano.

Hand-drawn map of houses and streets in the catchment area of one of Tarauni local government's polio vaccination teams, and the list of important locations the team would cover in this part of Kano.

 A day before the beginning of Subnational Immunization Days, vaccination team from Tarauni local government in Kano picks up polio vaccine at North West Zonal Cold Store in Kano.

A day before the beginning of Subnational Immunization Days, vaccination team from Tarauni local government in Kano picks up polio vaccine at North West Zonal Cold Store in Kano.

 House-to-house polio vaccination team is passing some children who had already been immunized in Kura, Kano State, during Subnational immunization days. They were on the way to revisit a house where earlier nobody was home.

House-to-house polio vaccination team is passing some children who had already been immunized in Kura, Kano State, during Subnational immunization days. They were on the way to revisit a house where earlier nobody was home.

 Girl receives polio vaccine in Kaduna, northern Nigeria city, during polio national immunization days (NIDs). During NIDs teams of vaccinators try to reach every child in Nigeria.

Girl receives polio vaccine in Kaduna, northern Nigeria city, during polio national immunization days (NIDs). During NIDs teams of vaccinators try to reach every child in Nigeria.

 Rukayya Saminu, vaccinator, administers polio vaccine to a girl during Subnational immunzation days in Kura, Kano State.

Rukayya Saminu, vaccinator, administers polio vaccine to a girl during Subnational immunzation days in Kura, Kano State.

 Bahayura Ahmad, team leader of one of the polio vaccination teams, writes the vaccination success rate on the wall of the house the team visited in Tarauni local government in Kano. In this case all five children were immunized against polio.

Bahayura Ahmad, team leader of one of the polio vaccination teams, writes the vaccination success rate on the wall of the house the team visited in Tarauni local government in Kano. In this case all five children were immunized against polio.

 Abu Isah, vaccinator at Nassarawa Hospital in Kano, administers IPV polio vaccine to a child. Several hospitals in Kano now conduct IPV polio vaccinations every workday as part of their regular children immunization program.

Abu Isah, vaccinator at Nassarawa Hospital in Kano, administers IPV polio vaccine to a child. Several hospitals in Kano now conduct IPV polio vaccinations every workday as part of their regular children immunization program.

 Boys play soccer in Tiga.

Boys play soccer in Tiga.